The Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and an international agreement that aims to reduce the emissions of six greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and the other three are types of fluorinated industrial gases: hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and hexafluoride. Sulfur (SF6). The protocol agreed to a reduction of at least 5% of the emissions of these gases in 2008-2012 compared to 1990 emissions. This does not mean that each country committed to reduce its emissions of regulated gases by 5%. At least, this is a percentage corresponding to a global commitment and each country subscribing to the protocol had its own commitments to reduce emissions.
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The protocol was adopted on December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, but did not enter into force until February 16, 2005. In November 2009, there were 187 states that had ratified it. The United States, which was when the Protocol the largest emitter of greenhouse gases (since 2005 is China), never ratified it.
The protocol is part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), signed in 1992 within what became known as the Earth Summit of Rio de Janeiro. The protocol came to give binding force to what the UNFCCC could not do at that time.
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On December 11, 1997, industrialized countries committed themselves in Kyoto to a set of measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The signatory governments of these countries agreed on a reduction, to be reached between 2008 and 2012, of at least 5% on average of greenhouse gas emissions, taking as reference the 1990 levels. The agreement entered into force on February 16, 2005. Russia signed it on November 18, 2004. The main objective is to reduce anthropogenic climate change based on the forced increase of the greenhouse effect. According to the IPCC estimates, the average surface atmospheric temperature will increase between 1.4 and 5.8 ° C during the 21st century (this is what is known as global warming). "These changes will have a serious impact on the ecosystem and our economies," says the European Commission.
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It was established that the commitment would be mandatory compliance when ratified by the industrialized countries responsible for at least 55% of CO2 emissions. With the ratification of Russia in November 2004, after getting the EU to pay for the industrial conversion, as well as the modernization of its facilities, especially the oil companies, the protocol has come into force. In addition to the compliance that these countries have made in terms of the emission of greenhouse gases, the generation of sustainable development was also promoted, in such a way that unconventional energies are used as well, thus reducing global warming.
Among the participating countries are: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Finland, France, Spain, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and the United States.